Yes. You can setup one-time payments for today or a future date. If you are a Business Online Services customer, you can also setup payments with invoice so you can pay multiple invoices to the same vendor with a single check payment.
You may also schedule recurring payments using Online Bill Pay, although this is not available for Online Tax Payments (businesses only). You can setup recurring payments in a similar fashion to the way you set one-time payments and just need to select your payment frequency and start date.